This is the crank pulley for the timing belt. Yes that’s some belt leftover wound tightly onto the wheel.

Seen here with timing belt riding ontop of it.

And here the tensioner. Normally the bolt rides in the middle of the groove, bolt was still tight, it had just put so much strain on everything that the tensioner has been yanked over under the bolt.

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So, the accessory drivebelt threw 2 grooves, these got under the waterpump pulley, got pulled in under the timing belt plastic covers, and made a mess, got tangled up in the crank pulley and stopped that. I assume the cam that jumped 2 teeth is due to the cams inertia pulling it over the belt teeth when the bottom end suddenly stopped.

This is the half-mangled part of the cover that joins behind the waterpump pulley.

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This is NOT the first time it threw a belt on me, last time it also got tangled in the powersteering pump guard and wound tightly around the alternator.

The excessive oil leak(atleast on this side of the engine) appears to be the powersteering pump pissing oil out behind the pulley, while the other end is the crankshaft oil seal(and thus flywheel flinging it around), along with a maybe-bad O-ring on the camshaft position sensor.

TL;DR you ask? 20$ part dies, my lottery-winning-luck gets spent on it taking out the entire engine instead of just making a mess and curling up to die around the alternator.