The NotPetya attack caused massive disruptions at companies as varied as the shipping company FedEx ($300 million in damages), drugmaker Merck ($310 million in damages), and the advertising firm WPP ($15 million in damages). It required the replacement of 45,000 computers and 4,000 servers at the cargo giant Maersk alone. “We can’t blame the victims for something a nation state wantonly did in an act of aggression,” Joyce said. “Russia needs to be held responsible for this.”