Tires: 300 level course

This is a little beyond summer tire vs all season tire vs snow tire.

When I was a kid in the good old USSR, my dad, for the lack of other options, went to my neighbor who had a tire vulcanization machine and got all 4 tires refreshed. Basically melted a new set of threads on the old tires.

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I could be totally wrong, but I think this sort of process exists in USA as well. Mostly for 18 wheeler trucks. Tires are understandably very expensive and so rather than getting new set, they glue on a new set of thread on the old set of tires and keep on trucking.

Is that true - anyone familiar with the subject?

What is a lifespan of a vulcanized tire vs off the shelf new tire?

The reason for this question is this - I was in Europe a few weeks back. Driving their gorgeous highways. I did not see any blown tires on side of highway. No shreds of old rubber. Is it due to vulcanization that we have so much rubber debris? Is that process not acceptable in Europe? Do we have more lax laws when it comes to tires in US?

OR! Is it due to poor tire maintenance by the driver/trailer owner? Improper air pressure? If that’s the case, why are the Europeans so much more responsible? Penalties?

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